The history of poker.2018-08-03
Poker is also called playing cards. Its origins come from a variety of claims, the most recognized of which is that cards first appeared in China, at least in 969 AD. At that time, a pair of cards in China had four suits, each with 14 cards, used as both banknotes and cards. There is a legend that there is a Venetian who brought cards back to his hometown from China, so Venice is the first place in Europe to have cards. This Venetian traveler may be Nikoro Polo, who returned to Venice from China with his brother Madio in 1269, or may be the son of Nikoro, the famous Marco Polo. When his father and uncle went to China for the second time, he followed them.
Some authorities believe that India is more likely than China to be the origin of cards. It has been suggested that there is a certain connection between the early European cards (Tarot cards) and the goddess Ardhanari in Hindu mythology. The image of the goddess has four hands, each holding a wand, a cup, a sword and a ring (representing money). In some early European cards, similar patterns were printed. There is a saying that the cards are made in Europe by Gypsies who might have been an Indian nation. They crossed Persia, Arabia and entered Egypt, and Egypt arrived in Europe. Some of them, about 100 people, entered Paris in 1427.
As early as the 14th century or earlier, many places in Europe, famous for Nuremberg, Augsburg and Ulm, have produced cards. The Italian Tarot (TAROT) may be earlier than the German card: in the Italian document of the year 1299, the Tarot card has been mentioned. The Duchess of Brabant, Johanna, had taught cards in the Netherlands in 1379 and had cards in Spain at least in 1371. It may be that the Moors or the Saracens took the cards from Spain to Italy, but the attempt to explain the similarity between the Spanish naipes of the card and the Arabic nabi did not succeed.
In 1392, King Charles VI of France ordered Yaquim Greene to hand-paint a deck of cards. This historical fact caused the emergence of the saying that the card originated in France. But what is clearly visible is that a deck of cards that Fawang ordered to draw, but a pair of cards similar to other already used cards. At that time, the Royal Treasurer, who was responsible for paying the money, had said that there were three decks of cards, printed in "golden and various colors, with a lot of decorations, which meant that our King had a place to entertain." 17 of them The existing card is on display at the French National Library.
The time when cards were passed to Britain was later than that of other European countries. José died in 1400. Although he had been involved in various entertainment activities at the time, he never mentioned cards: "They dance, they play chess and banquets." About Edward I wearing four costumes with cuffs to play four The information of Wang (k)'s game almost certainly refers to some other game, perhaps some form of chess. The earliest mention of the time for British playing cards was in 1465, when British poker makers applied to Edward IV for bans on the importation of foreign-made Zach cards, and there was an appropriate decree to support.
CP Hagravi wrote in his book "The History of Playing Cards": "There is a legend about Columbus and his sailors, saying that these sailors love gambling when they encounter in the hustle and mysterious sea. When the storm hit, they threw all their playing cards into the sea because of the horror caused by superstition. Later, after they arrived on land, they regretted this reckless action, so they were in this new The country used a leaf to make some playing cards, which attracted a lot of interest from the Indians." The material that Serraso de Navea said ("Florida History"), said In the 1534 expedition, the Spanish soldiers used leather playing cards to play cards. This statement does not seem to be just a legend. Mexicans had a card game very early, when Mexicans called amapa-tolli, where amapa means paper, and tolli means game.
The modern form of fifty-two cards, divided into two red flowers and two black-colored playing cards, is probably derived from the early Italian Tarot (TAROT): Tarot There are four suits, each with 10 or fewer small cards (SPOT CARDS) and 4 head cards: King (K), Hou (Q) and Cavaliers and Guards. After the early days of playing cards, some of the modern playing cards were still replaced by the Warriors. The guards were printed in the shape of a variety of different servants (VALET), but the name of the guard was retained, but in modern usage it has been renamed J (JACK). In the 52-card deck of cards, the Cavaliers are no longer used, and they are used as head cards.
Chinese solitaires are quite different from Western solitaires; Chinese solitaires are narrow and long, usually 2 to 2.5 inches long and 0.5 to 2 inches wide, and early cards are even narrower and longer. In terms of number of cards and suits, Chinese and Indian solitaires are quite different from Western poker cards. There is an Indian card, a pair of 144 cards, divided into 8 suits, each suit 18 cards; another Indian fine card for each pair of 120 cards, divided into 10 suits, each suit 12 cards. There is a Chinese card, a pair of only 30 cards, divided into 3 suits, 9 suits per suit, and 3 cards with great power; but generally there are 4 suits.
As a luxury, playing cards provide a large source of tax for state taxation. The UK first taxed poker in 1615.