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The origin of Go

Go, which is called the game in ancient China, can be said to be the originator of chess in the whole ancient chess class. It has been passed down for more than 4,000 years. According to "World", Go is made by 尧. Jin Zhanghua also said in the "History of the Museum": "Yu is a fool of the sub-business, so it is used to teach Go." He and Yu are legendary figures. The idea of making Go is not credible, but it reflects the early origin of Go. During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, Go has been widely spread in society. "Twenty-five Years of Zuo Zhuan Gong Gong" once recorded such a thing. In 559 BC, the monarch of the Wei State was expelled from the country by the defending doctor Ning and others. Later, the son of Ning Colony promised to welcome Wei Xiangong back. Wenzi criticized: "Ning's must have disasters, the players are uncertain, and they are incapable of coupling, and the situation is set by the king and the Buddha is fixed?" The terminology in the game of chess is used to describe political indecisiveness, indicating that Go activities are At that time, society has become a thing that people have seen.

The Qin dynasty and the six countries dominated the world, and the activities related to Go were rarely recorded. The volume of "Xijing Miscellanies" has been described in the early Western Han Dynasty "Duling Dufuzi chess, the first person in the world", but this kind of record is also like a star, indicating that the development of Go is still relatively slow. In the early years of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the society was still in a state of "both in the world." Until the middle and late Eastern Han Dynasty, Go activities became more popular. In 1952, archaeologists found a stone chess board in the East Han Tomb of Wangdu No. 1 in Hebei. The chess board was square, with four feet under the plate, and 17 roads in each position, which provided the shape of the chess board in the Han and Wei Dynasties. The physical information of the image. In connection with the frequent wars between hundreds of years between Han and Wei, the battle of Go has become an important tool for cultivating military talent. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Ma Rong regarded Go as a small battlefield in the "Go Go" and used the next Go as a combat force. "The three-footed game is a battlefield; Chen Jushi is a pawn, and the two enemies are quite." Military strategists, like Cao Cao, Sun Ce and Lu Xun in the Three Kingdoms, are the leaders on the battlefields of the size of the battlefield and the chessboard. Wang Hao, one of the famous "Jian'an Seven Sons", is not only known for his poetry, but also a Go expert. It is said that he has an amazing memory, and he has a clear understanding of the disc style and the way of playing chess. He can re-appear the "bad" chess that he has watched.

There have been two important changes in the history of Go in China, mainly due to the increase in bureaucracy. Before and after the Wei and Jin Dynasties, it was the first time when important changes took place. Wei Wei’s "Arts" said that the Wei and Jin Dynasties and their previous "games are seventeen, 280, nine hundred and fifty, white and black." This is exactly the same as the bureaucracy of the Eastern Han Go Club found in Hebei Wangdu. However, the "Chess Classics" of the Southern and Northern Dynasties discovered in the stone chamber of Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, Gansu, showed that the Go game at that time was "three hundred and sixty-one, imitating the degree of the sun." This shows that 19 games of Go have been popular. This is exactly the same as the current chess game, reflecting that the Go game at the time has initially possessed the current Go customization.

Due to the rise of metaphysics in the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the scholars of the literati were proud of Shang Qing, and the game was more prosperous. The next game of chess was called "hand talk." The upper-level rulers also have a good game of chess. They set up the "chess" system with chess and set up a "character" (grade) equivalent to chess with a certain level of "chess". At that time, the chess art was divided into nine products. The "Southern History · Liu Yu Chuan" contained: "Liang Wudi's good game, so that the smashing of the game, the 267 people of the dynasty", can be seen in the popularity of chess activities. Now Japanese Go is divided into "nine segments" that originate from this. These changes have greatly promoted the improvement of Go game technology and laid the foundation for the further development of Go game in China and the spread to foreign countries.

During the Tang and Song Dynasties, it can be regarded as the second major change period in the history of Go game. Due to the love of the emperors and various other reasons, Go has been greatly developed, and the game has spread all over the country. At this time, Go is not only in its military value, but mainly in cultivating sentiment, enjoying body and mind, and growing wisdom. Chess and playing the piano, writing poetry and painting have been cited as elegant things, and have become an entertainment and entertainment project for both men and women. The painting of "The Girl's Chess Figure" unearthed from the Tang Tomb No. 187 in Astana, Turpan, Xinjiang, was the portrayal of the aristocratic women's situation in the game. At that time, the game had already adopted 19 tracks as the main form, and the chess pieces had been changed from the square to the round. In 1959, the porcelain go board unearthed from the Tomb of Zhangsheng in Anyang, Henan Province, the ivory pliers wooden chess board of the Emperor Xiaowu of Japan and the current Japanese warehouse in the Tang Dynasty were all 19 vertical and horizontal. The black and white round chess pieces of the Tang Dynasty in the Chinese Sports Museum and the 50 black and white round chess pieces unearthed from the Yanggong Tomb of the Song Dynasty in Huai'an Song Dynasty reflect the changes and development of Go in this period.

The implementation of the "chess and waiting" system in the Tang Dynasty is a new symbol in the history of the development of Chinese Go. The so-called chess waiting is the professional chess player in the Tang Hanlin Academy who specializes in accompanying the emperor to play chess. At that time, the chess courts that were dedicated to the inner court were selected after numerous rigorous examinations. They all have the first-class chess skills, so they are known as "national hands." The famous chess in the Tang Dynasty was waiting for the King of the Tang Emperor Xuanzong, Wang Shuwen of Tang Dezong, Gu Shiyan of Tang Xuanzong and the slippery energy of Tang Xinzong. Due to the implementation of the chess waiting system, the influence of Go has been expanded, and the social status of the players has also been improved. This system lasted for more than 500 years from the early Tang Dynasty to the Southern Song Dynasty, and played a great role in promoting the development of Chinese Go.

Since the Tang Dynasty, the prosperous Go has gradually crossed the country with the exchange of Chinese and foreign cultures. First of all, Japan sent the Tang dynasty to bring Go, and Go was quickly spread in Japan. Not only have many Go players emerged, but also the production of chess pieces and chess games is very elegant. For example, in the second year of Emperor Xuanzong’s reign of Emperor Xuanzong (848), the chess game brought by the Japanese kings who came to the Tang Dynasty was made up of "Jade Jade", and the chess pieces were used to collect the "Jade" in the pool. "made. In addition to Japan, Baekje, Goryeo, and Silla on the Korean peninsula also have contacts with China. In particular, Silla has sent messengers to Tang many times, and the exchange of Go is more common. In the "New Tang Book, Dong Yi Chuan", the situation of the chess players in the Tang Dynasty, Yang Jiying and Silla, was described. It shows that the Go of Silla has a certain level.

In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the level of chess has been rapidly improved. One of its performances is the genre. During the Zhengde and Jiajing years of the Ming Dynasty, three famous schools of Go were formed: one was Bao Yizhong (Yongjia), the Yongjia School attached to Li Chong, Zhou Yuan and Xu Xisheng; the other was Cheng Haoliang (Xin'an) Guan, Wang Wei, Fang Ziqian's Xin'an School; one is the Jingshi School with Yan Lun and Li Ke (Beijing People) as the champion. These three factions have different styles, and the layout of the offensive and defensive focuses on different, but they are all famous at that time. Under their leadership, the long-term monopoly of the scholar-officials began to develop in the civic class, and a number of "lixiang villains" players emerged. Through frequent folk competitions, they have further popularized Go game.

With the prosperity of Go game activities, a number of folk chess artists compiled a large number of chess pieces, such as "Emotional Record", "Shishi Xianji", "Three Talents Game Chess", "Xianji Arsenal" and "Ying History" More than 20 kinds of Ming version of Go Game, such as "Yu Wen", are all valuable works that exist, from which you can see the highly developed development of Go skills and theory.

The absorption and promotion of the Han nationality by the Manchu rulers also made the Go game activities highly developed in the Qing Dynasty, with a large number of famous players, and the chess court was unprecedentedly prosperous. At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, there were already a group of famous people, with Bailing, Shanda and Wu Ruicheng as the most. In particular, the second volume of the "Four Sons" written by Bai Ling, changed the method of the old spectrum of the Ming Dynasty, and detailed and explained to make it a masterpiece.

From the end of Emperor Kangxi to the beginning of Jiaqing, the game was more prosperous, and a large number of famous artists emerged from the chess world. Among them, Liang Weijin, Cheng Lanru, Fan Xiping and Shi Xixia were called "four people." Among the four people, the chess style of Liang Weijin was so varied that he benefited from Shi Xia Xia and Fan Xiping. Both Shi and Fan are from Haining, Zhejiang Province, and they are famous for their youth. They are called "Haichang Ermiao". It is said that when Shi Xiaxia is 30 years old and Fan Xiping is 31 years old, the two players play against the lake, and after 10 rounds of battle, the outcome is quite equal. "When the Lake 10 Bureau" was shocking and became a subtle work that has been passed down through the ages.